Difference between revisions of "Factors influencing mining method selection"

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== Mining Method Classification ==
 
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From: Queen's Mine Design Wiki
   
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''Note: Oil and gas deposits are not discussed here. Underground mining methods are the focus of this article.''
   
[[File:UgroundMiningMethodsFlowChart.png|thumb|center|400px|alt=Flowchart showing a hierarchy of underground mining methods and associated rockmass response to mining (Brady and Brown, 2006)|Figure 1: A hierarchy of underground mining methods and associated rockmass response to mining (Brady and Brown, 2006)]]
 
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The selection of a mining method for an ore deposit is based on many factors that are driven by the economics and profitability of the mine for a company. These include the following:
   
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*Ore grade and recovery
 
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*Cost of infrastructure
[[File:RoomAndPillarMining.png|thumb|center|400px|alt=Schematic of a supported (room-and-pillar) method of mining (after Hamrin, 2001)|Figure 2: Schematic of a supported (room-and-pillar) method of mining (after Hamrin, 2001)]]
 
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*Ore extraction
 
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*Labour and machine costs
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*Underground support costs
 
 
*[[Geotechnical factors]]
[[File:BlockCaving.png|thumb|center|400px|alt=Schematic of a mechanized block caving operation method of mining at the El Teniente Mine, Chile (after Hamrin, 2001)|Figure 3: Schematic of a mechanized block caving operation method of mining at the El Teniente Mine, Chile (after Hamrin, 2001)]]
 
 
== Thickness and Orientation of Mineralization ==
 
 
== Ore and Country Rock Strength ==
 
 
== Distribution of Mineralization within the Orebody ==
 
 
== Depth of Mineralization and Surface Conditions ==
 
== Geotechnical Environment ==
 
 
 
== Geotechnical Factors of Underground Mining Methods ==
 
 
===Pillar Supported===
 
 
====Room and Pillar Mining====
 
====Sublevel Open Stoping====
 
 
===Artificially Supported===
 
 
====Cut-and-Fill Stoping====
 
====Bench-and-Fill Stoping====
 
 
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[[File:BenchAndFillStoping.png|thumb|center|400px|alt=A longitudinal and cross-section of bench-and-fill stoping geometry in the Lead Mine, Mount Isa Mines, Queensland, Australia (after Villaescusa, 1996)|Figure 4: Bench-and-fill stoping geometry in the Lead Mine, Mount Isa Mines, Queensland, Australia; (a) longitudinal section, and (b) cross-section (after Villaescusa, 1996)]]
 
 
====Shrink Stoping====
 
 
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[[File:ShrinkStoping.png|thumb|center|400px|alt=Schematic of shrink stoping (after Hamrin, 2001)|Figure 5: Layout for shrink stoping (after Hamrin, 2001)]]
 
 
=====Case Study: Mouska Gold Mine=====
 
 
====Vertical Crater Retreat (VCR) Stoping====
 
 
===Unsupported===
 
 
====Longwall Mining====
 
 
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[[File:LongwallMining.png|thumb|center|400px|alt=Schematic of longwall mining in hard rock (after Hamrin, 2001)|Figure 6: Schematic of longwall mining in hard rock (after Hamrin, 2001)]]
 
 
====Sublevel Caving====
 
 
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[[File:SublevelCaving.png|thumb|center|400px|alt=Figure 7: Schematic of transverse sublevel caving (after Hamrin, 2001)|Figure 7: Schematic of transverse sublevel caving (after Hamrin, 2001)]]
 
 
====Block Caving====
 
 
== Summary ==
 
 
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{| class="wikitable"
 
|-
 
! Method Class !! Method !! Relative magnitude of displacements in country rock !! Strain energy storage in near field rock !! Suitable orebody geometry !! Suitable orebody grade !! Suitable orebody, country rock strength !! Suitable depth
 
|-
 
| Pillar supported || Room-and-pillar || ..|| .. || .. || .. || .. || ..
 
|-
 
| Pillar supported || Sublevel open stoping || ..|| .. || .. || .. || .. || ..
 
|-
 
| Artificially supported || Cut-and-fill || ..|| .. || .. || .. || .. || ..
 
|-
 
| Artificially supported || Bench-and-fill || ..|| .. || .. || .. || .. || ..
 
|-
 
| Artificially supported || Shrink stoping || ..|| .. || .. || .. || .. || ..
 
|-
 
| Artificially supported || VCR stoping || ..|| .. || .. || .. || .. || ..
 
|-
 
| Unsupported || Longwall mining || ..|| .. || .. || .. || .. || ..
 
|-
 
| Unsupported || Sublevel caving || ..|| .. || .. || .. || .. || ..
 
|-
 
| Unsupported || Block caving|| ..|| .. || .. || .. || .. || ..
 
|}
 
 
== References ==
 
 
*Barton, N.R., Lien, R. and Lunde, J. 1974. Engineering classification of rock masses for the design of tunnel support. Rock Mech. 6(4), 189-239.
 
*Bieniawski, Z.T. 1989. Engineering rock mass classifications. New York: Wiley.
 
*Brady, B.H.G. and Brown, E.T. 2006. Rock Mechanics for underground mining, 3rd Ed. The Netherlands: Springer.
 
*Brown, E. T. 2003. Block Caving Geomechanics. Julius Kruttschnitt Mineral Research Centre: Brisbane.
 
*Bullock, R. and Hustrulid, W. 2001. Chapter 3: Planning the Underground Mine on the Basis of Mining Method. In: Underground Mining Methods: Engineering Fundamentals and International Case Studies (eds W. A. Hustrulid and R. L. Bullock), 29-48. Society for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration: Littleton, Colorado.
 
*Hamrin, H. 2001. Chapter 1: Underground mining methods and applications. Underground Mining Methods: Engineering Fundamentals and International Case Studies (eds W. A. Hustrulid and R. L. Bullock), 3–14. Society for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration: Littleton, Colorado.
 
*Herne, V. and McGuire, T. 2001. Chapter 13: Mississippi Potash, Inc.’s, underground operations. In: Underground Mining Methods: Engineering Fundamentals and International Case Studies (eds W. A. Hustrulid and R. L. Bullock), 137-141. Society for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration: Littleton, Colorado.
 
*Hoek, E. and Brown, E.T. 1997. Practical estimates of rock mass strength. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. 34:8,1165-8,1186.
 
*Krauland, N., Marklund, P.-I., and Board, M. 2001. Chapter 37: Rock support in cut-and-fill mining at the Kristineberg Mine. In: Underground Mining Methods: Engineering Fundamentals and International Case Studies (eds W. A. Hustrulid and R. L. Bullock), 325-332. Society for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration: Littleton, Colorado.
 
*Laubscher, D.H. 1990. A Geomechanics Classification System for the Rating of Rock Mass in Mine design. Journal of the South African Institute of Mining & Metallurgy, vol. 90, no 10, pp. 257-273.
 
*Laubscher, D.H. 1994. Cave mining – the state of the art. The Journal of The South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 94(10): 279-93.
 
*Marchand, R., Godin, P., and Doucet, C. 2001. Chapter 19: Shrinkage stoping at the Mouska Mine. In: Underground Mining Methods: Engineering Fundamentals and International Case Studies (eds W. A. Hustrulid and R. L. Bullock), 189-194. Society for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration: Littleton, Colorado.
 
*Villaescusa, E. 1996. Excavation design for bench stoping at Mount Isa mine, Queensland, Australia. Trans. Instn Min. Metall., 105: A1–10.
 

Latest revision as of 10:55, 30 July 2012

From: Queen's Mine Design Wiki

Note: Oil and gas deposits are not discussed here. Underground mining methods are the focus of this article.

The selection of a mining method for an ore deposit is based on many factors that are driven by the economics and profitability of the mine for a company. These include the following:

  • Ore grade and recovery
  • Cost of infrastructure
  • Ore extraction
  • Labour and machine costs
  • Underground support costs
  • Geotechnical factors