From Queen's University Mine Design Wiki
This article is about the application of ground support strategies and techniques to "underground mining projects". For the article on general geotechnical design see Geotechnical Design.
Ground support is a set of techniques, elements and methods that enable the conservation or mobilization of a rockmass' initial strength. The rockmass is given the ability to self-support throughout the course of mining. The ultimate goal of this practice is to allow for mining to occur safely while maintaining the stability of created underground excavations.These techniques can be divided into two main categories .
Support techniques refer to the action of applying an external reactive force to a rock surface in the process of deformation, i.e. submitted to strain causing changes in the shape, size and volume of the rock . Reinforcement techniques refer to the action of adding internal support, e.g. rockbolts, to maintain or improve the rockmass' properties prior to deformation.
See Main Article: The information required for the mine design
Significant Properties of Support Elements
Uses of Ground SupportHistorically, the installation of ground support was confined to temporary or permanent excavations. Mining Methods would have been supported with long timber members to prevent ground failures in these workings. These workings would typically have remained opened for short periods of time (1-2 weeks). As for permanent excavations such as shaft stations which can remain opened for years, permanent support and reinforcement was installed. Often times, the temporary support previously put in place was removed and replaced with more permanent forms. This is contrary to modern practice where the rock-support interactions are an important design consideration.
Active vs. Passive
Primary vs. Secondary
Types of Support
Empirical Support Design
The appropriate ground support strategies are selected through various engineering design techniques. In Ontario, this design selection is governed by legal requirements defined in the Ontario Occupational Health and Safety Act.
Historical Methods of Support
- Brady, B. H.G. and E. T. Brown. "Rock Support and Reinforcement." Brady, B. H.G. and E. T. Brown. Rock Mechanics. Springer Science, 2005. p. 312 - 346.
- Nelson, Stephen A. "Physical Geology - EENS 111." 2007. Tulane University. http://www.tulane.edu/~sanelson/geol111/deform.htm