Fly-in fly-out mines

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A fly-in fly-out system is typically used for remote mining or exploration operations. When a fly-in fly-out operation is implemented long term it is usually done so in the place of the development of a local community which can be costly. Employees typically fly out from the nearest major population center, in some cases employees will fly out of a variety of cities for large fly in fly out operations. Western Australian, West Africa, and Canada’s Northern and Oilsands operations are areas where fly in fly out operations are common.


The schedule for fly in fly out operations vary depending on the production schedule of the operation, the proximity to the employee base, and employee group. Schedules can be modified to be equivalent with a conventional 9 to 5 roster as shown in the table below. For example, a mine with runs 24/7/365 will likely use 12 hour shifts for their production staff to keep the mine continually operational. Equivalent scheduling using days with longer hours provides employees with pay equivalent to a conventional schedule with the added benefit of longer vacation periods.

Equivalent Scheduling
Scheduling Conventional Long Wknd Week/Week 10 On & 10 Off 12 On & 12 Off 2 Weeks On/2 Weeks Off 2 Weeks On/1 Week Off 3 Weeks On/1 Week Off
Days On 5 4 7 10 12 14 14 21
Days Off 2 3 7 10 12 14 7 7
Hours Per Day 8.5 10.5 12 12 12 12 9 8
Hours Per Work Shift 42.5 42 84 120 144 168 126 168
Hours Per Month (30 Days) 182.1 180.0 180.0 180.0 180.0 180.0 180.0 180.0

A 2014 research report on fly-in fly-out operations by Stratum International found that 4 weeks on two weeks off was the most positively view schedule by fly-in fly-out employees [1]. Other schedules that were view similarly positive were 1 week on/1 week off, 2 weeks on/2 weeks off, 5 weeks on/ 3 weeks off and 6 weeks on/ 3 weeks off [1]. Any schedule that involved working more than 6 weeks at a time was view increasingly negatively by those in the industry [1].

Employee Rostering and Retention

Employee retention can be difficult at fly-in fly-out mines. Average annual employee turnover is around 21% [2]. Experience has shown however that a turnover rate of greater than 20% proved to be detrimental to mine productivity [2]. Furthermore, turnover rates among professionals tend to be among the highest [2]. This high turnover among professionals can present challenges when developing employee rosters, especially when attempting to ensure upper management shifts are covered [3].

Retention Strategies

Due to the high turnover rates at a fly-in fly-out mine many employers are beginning to include retention strategies in their corporate practices [4]. These strategies are being introduced due to the high costs associated with recruitment and replacing employees [2]. Currently no strategies exist to estimate employee turnover rates, as there does not seem to be any generalized trends [4]. Western Metals, and Australian mining company experimented with methods to help retain employees. A method they found of great success was to privately trade company shares and encourage employees to purchase shares [3]. The success was credited to employees feeling as though they were involved in the company’s success [3].

While recruitment and retention programs are becoming increasingly popular several problems still exist. These programs suffer from lack of awareness and coordination [4]. Furthermore, there seems to be much confusion of these programs in regards to the type of programs available, eligibility for the programs and how to access these programs. There seems to be a general lack of coordination in regards to these programs [4]. Another drawback of these programs is the lack of programming aimed at succession training, which can place additional stress on new employees [4].

Roster Strategies

Since employee turnover rates still remain high this can create rostering issues in fly-in fly-out mines. To date, little research has been done into employee retention and rostering. This may be due to the uniqueness of each situation, which makes it difficult to proved a ‘one size fits all’ solution. While a unique solution may not exist, companies have been implementing strategies to try and mitigate rostering problems. One particular strategy involves a grading system. This system involves structuring employees by competency, skill level and maximum years experience [3]. This structure is used to hire employees, ensuring the site always has the required personnel available [3]. Strategies also include balancing the time spent on site and the time spent off site, as a specific number of days assigned to various positions has shown to help maintain high performance levels [3].

Effects on Surrounding Communities

Local Communities

Mining activity has a significant effect on communities nearby. Many companies will choose to use fly-in fly-out (FIFO) to minimize the interaction between the company and the local population. FIFO operations are often considered less disruptive to remote communities because they do not create a mining town, nor do they utilize local communities, if any, for residence or services for their workers. Because of this, local communities avoid the negative consequences of becoming a mining town, while also missing out on the benefits the exploitation of mineral resources provides. FIFO operations provide the opportunity for remote communities to avoid the negative consequences of having a mine nearby. Interaction between the mining company and local communities is reduced, reducing the risk of conflict arising due to an influx of “outsiders” [5] and the transition from small remote town with a complex social structure to a mining “boom” town. Local people should be compensated for the inconvenience of having a mine nearby, they are included in the decision making process. Although countries like Canada and Australia require local non mining communities affected by mining activities are required to have the opportunity to have a say in the decision making process, the often feel like they have little influence compared to big, wealthy mining companies.

There are often concerns about having a settlement of transient workers near remote communities. Generally transient labourers have less respect for the community near where they work in comparison to their own home. This can have negative consequences for remote communities, such as an increase in the crime rate, prostitution, increased drug use, among others [6]. These consequences can cost money, putting the burden on the community’s economy rather than on the mining company. The cost to the local community can come in the form of strain on the infrastructure, service sector. The local government is often unable benefit from taxation of resources when mining activity happens on private or federally owned land, leaving an unbalanced system where the local community does not benefit from taxation or revenue from the mine, but the company does benefit from the use of local services and infrastructure [6].

Family Life

In terms of FIFO operations, one of the major factors affecting worker satisfaction and employee turnover is their overall mental health and the well-being of their family relationships [7]. FIFO operations are unique in the issues and pressures associated with the lifestyle, with the impacts based on the policies of the company, along with their employee support mechanisms.

Employees who choose to participate in FIFO generally make an informed decision, which makes them aware of the risks and difficulties associated with the lifestyle. Research shows that FIFO employees and their families have similar psychosocial, relationship and family health to the wider population, which in this case was Australia [7].

The key issues for FIFO employees include loneliness when away from family, anxiety about travel home if an emergency were to occur, ability to communicate to home while at the mine site, and the limited opportunities to get involved in the community [7]. Additionally, being contacted by from the site, having to cut their time off short, and changes in the roster schedule also detrimentally affect the FIFO lifestyle. Along with personal issues affecting the employee and their family life, there are also internal issues that may arise as a result of the FIFO lifestyle.

Issues between a FIFO employee and their spouse or partner include fidelity, stress caused by regular comings and goings, and the constant need to redefine roles within the family when the employee returns [7]. Studies have shown that the length of roster cycles had a noticeable impact on the satisfaction with the FIFO lifestyle. Generally shorter cycles were more favoured by employees but there were some who preferred longer cycles because it gave longer adjustment times and there was less travelling involved. Additionally FIFO employees have had issues with missing out on important family activities, developmental milestones of their children, and fitting in with their partner’s life while at home [7].

There have been many strategies developed to improve the lifestyle of FIFO employees with the goals of improved retention and work ethic acting as the driving factors. Communication to home was outlined as a factor and improvement strategies such as making internet connections available throughout the site, and having a mobile phone tower installed were listed [7]. Home support was also listed as a way to improve retention, with strategies such as carpool transportation to the airport, limited calls back to site for employees, and limited roster changes. Additionally, there are strategies to help the families manage the lifestyle such as information sessions about FIFO employment, family get-togethers in town, and site visits for the families to understand their family member’s workplace.

Table 2.png Table 2 Cont.png

Worker Moral & Mental Health

Mental health

FIFO work in Australia is expected to increase, with 63% of the workforce expected to be FIFO by 2020 up from 60% in 2014 [8]. In a federal FIFO inquiry in 2012, David Mountain of the Australian Medical Association noted that increased stress, mental illness, anxiety, alcohol and substance abuse, and obesity are common concerns for doctors servicing FIFO workers [8]. Higher levels alcohol consumption and substance use have been found in FIFO workers compared to national average. FIFO workers were found more likely to drink alcohol at dangerous levels, become overweight and smoke. However, FIFO workers had lower amount of self-reported prevalence of current mental health problems compared to other employment types. Barriers preventing workers from seeking support programs include embarrassment, a culture of not speaking of problems, fear of losing employment and mistrust in supports [9].

Factors negatively affecting the mental health of workers include the predominately male population, fatigue, isolation, anxiety and stress. Additionally, social isolation, family/financial stress and high-risk taking behavior are risk factors proven among the age/gender group. Shift work has also been clinically proven to effect mental health [10]. Under suspicion 4-1 and 3-1 rosters were linked to nine FIFO-related suicides in the Pilbara region within a year, the Western Australian Parliament commissioned an Education and Standing Committee to investigate mental illness in FIFO workers in August 2014 [8]. This suicide rate among FIFO workers equals to over 80 suicides per 100,000 workers, not including suicides that occur outside of camp. In Australia the standardized national average for suicide in Australian males in 2013 was 16.3 per 100,000 men. University of Melbourne found for other labourers/shift workers between 2001 and 2010, suicide among male machine operators/labourers was 18 per 100000, and 13 per 100000 for those employed in skill trade [11].

FIFO workers are already in the high risk demographic for suicide. The majority of suicides occur in 15-44 year old with 4 out of 5 suicides in general being male, where FIFO workers 80% male and the average age is 38 [10]. The Education and Standing Committee identified three studies which indicated the rate of mental health problems among FIFO workers could be 30 per cent, compared to the national average of 20 per cent of men between 25 and 44 [12]. The Austalian Centre for Rural and Remote Mental Health conducted a survey of 994 workers and estimated mental stress in 26-33% of workers. The Lifeline Report surveyed 924 FIFO workers, with in-depth interviews with 18 FIFO workers and determined 30% evidenced a likelihood of having a psychological disorder and many had turned to negative coping mechanisms such as alcohol and drug abuse, and burying themselves in work [9]. Edith Cowan University researcher Ms Philippa Vojnovic found 28.3% percent of FIFO workers suffered from depression, 22.3% suffered anxiety, and 19.4% suffered from high stress. It also showed men employed as FIFO workers for 5-9 years showed highest levels of depression and anxiety [12]. After 10 years working as FIFO worker, workers showed same level of depression and anxiety as a FIFO worker in his first year. In response to the risk FIFO work arrangements have on mental health, a code of practice is under development to address rosters, fatigue, workplace culture, the impact of FIFO on relationships, communication and accommodation facilities [12]. Additionally, changes on the reporting of suicides and attempted suicides were recommended to include those that occur off shift.

Cost to employers

Not only does mental disorders affect at work performance, self-medication can lead to workers taking sick days to avoid failing breath tests at work. The Mental Health Commission’s plan ‘Suicide Prevention 2020: Together we can save lives” identifies mental health in the workplace may best worthwhile for firms to invest in as every dollar invested may return between $2.30 – $5.70 and untreated depression is estimated to cost $12.3 billion a year [12].


It was reported that the biggest issue with men is they are less likely to ask for help than women, and that peer-based support systems found to be most effective means of suicide prevention in men [11]. Positive coping strategies for FIFO workers in relationships suggested by Mining Family Matters psychologist Angie Willcocks include [13]:

1. Be honest about how you're feeling and tackle problems as a team. Many problems that arise are symptoms of the FIFO lifestyle, rather than relationship problems. 2. Set shared goals. 3. Don't assume that your life is tougher than your partner's. (Life is not a competition - you're both exhausted.) 4. Get financial advice to ensure good wages are saved and invested wisely, instead of being trapped by large debt. 5. Exercise regularly - it will improve the health of both body and mind. 6. Try to keep the lines of communication open when you're apart (and if you don't feel like talking, explain why in a loving way).


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Stratum International. (2014). FIFO A Global Perspective. London: Stratum International.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Beach, R., & Cliff, D. (2003, Sept/Oct). TURNOVER AND FIFO OPERATIONS: SOME FACTS, OPINIONS AND THEORIES. AusIMM Bulletin, 64-65.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 James, T. (1998). Management Systems and Employee Rosters— The Western Metals Way. Underground Operators Conference. Townsville: The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Northwest Territories Department of Education, Culture and Employment. (2015). Recruitment and Retention Discussion Paper. Government of the Northwest Territories, Reform and Innovation Division. Yellowknife: Skill 4 Success.
  5. MMSD The Mining, M. a. (2001). Local Communities and Mines. In MMSD Breaking New Ground (pp. 197-230). London: MMSD.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Storey, K. (2010). Fly-in/Fly-out: Implications for Community Sustainability. Sustainability, 2, 1161-1181.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 Sibbel, A. M., Sibbel, J., & Goh, K. (2006). Fly-In, Fly-Out Operations - Strategies for Managing Employee Well-Being. International Mine Management Congerence, 25-34
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Julian Turner (March 2015) Fly-in, fly-out – the mental and physical effects of mining work schedules. Accessed Jan 29.
  9. 9.0 9.1 “FIFO/DIDO Mental Health Research Report 2013” Western Austalia: Lifeline WA. 2013.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Ben, Hagemann. Austalian Mining. “Opening the veil on FIFO mental health” (Aug 2014).
  11. 11.0 11.1 Ben, Hagemann. Austalian Mining. “FIFO suicides lead to call for code of practice in Northern Territory.” (Oct 2015). Copyright Reed Business Information Pty Ltd, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. Oct 2015
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 “The Impact of FIFO work practices on mental health.” Legislative Assembly Parliament of Western Australia. (June 2015) Retrieved Jan 28.$file/20150617%20-%20Final%20Report%20w%20signature%20for%20website.pdf
  13. Validakis, V. (2014) Exercise and start talking: tips to help improve FIFO workers' mental health. Australian mining. Accessible: